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by Vishal Bhatt


Take ice, heat it to water, then to steam. Try and condense the steam into water and then put it back in the freezer to make ice.

    • Be careful while heating .

    • Use burner under adult supervision.

    • Do not ingest any of the materials.

  1. Fill in your readings in a table such as this.
    • Fill in your readings in a table such as this.

    • Take two vessels/beakers and add 50 ml of water to each one.

    • In one of them, add about 20g (1 tablespoon) of salt; stir it well.

    • Measure their temperature at this initial stage using a thermometer.

    • Setup your heating equipment.

    • Once again, measure the temperature of water in both the vessels before heating.

    • Start heating both the vessels.Measure the temperature after 5 minutes.

    • Record the temperature at 5-minute intervals.

    • Note down your readings till the water starts boiling.

    • Pour 50 ml of water in two separate bowls .

    • Put about 1 tablespoon (~20g) of salt in one of the bowls.

    • Stir it well such that the salt dissolves completely .

    • Measure both the initial temperatures and keep the bowls in the freezer.

    • Record the temperature at 5 minute intervals.

    • Note down your readings till the water in each bowl freezes completely.

    • Collect the salt water and normal water which are now completely frozen.

    • Let them thaw in the room and measure their temperature every 5 minutes.

    • Make a note of the temperature at each interval.

    • Keep measuring the temperature at 5 minute intervals till the ice melts completely.

    • You may now take the water in either bowl and put it in a vessel/beaker for heating.

    • Switch on the burner and put a lid on the vessel.

    • If the lid is transparent, you should notice the lid become cloudy as the water heats up. If not, then remove the lid as the water boils

    • Remove the lid and notice the steam slowly condense into water droplets on the lid.

    • Note that you have gone through the entire process of vaporising, freezing, melting and condensing water through the course of this experiment.

    • Make sure you note down the readings at exactly 5-minute intervals .

    • Measuring the temperature, especially when there's a change of state, is imperative.

    • How many states of matter did you observe?

    • Why does the water become cooler when you dissolve salt in it? What did you notice about the freezing point of salt water?

    • Which type of water has a higher boiling point?

    • Which type of ice melts faster? Salt water or fresh water?

    • Can you say something about the polar ice caps and the temperatures at the poles based on the freezing and thawing of ice?

    • If you are at a hill station, say 2000m or 3000m above sea level, are your readings significantly different from what we have shown? Why?

Finish Line

Vishal Bhatt

Member since: 04/26/2017

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63 Guides authored