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1.3

Major VersionM

by Raghottam Joshi

Introduction

A periscope is a tubular optical instrument, containing mirrors, used to observe objects which have minimal visibility and are not in the direct line of sight of the observer.

The mirrors placed at an angle, facing each other, at the opposite ends of a tube enables an object to get reflected between the ends. This allows the observer to see the reflected object at the other end.

In this TACtivity, we will make a periscope using a cardboard sheet and a template. Once the periscope is ready, you can change the angles of both the mirrors and predict the distance based on laws of reflection.

    • Scissors have sharp edges and may cause injury if not handled with care.

  1. Take the printout of the periscope template attached below. Place the two templates, page 1 towards your right side and page 2 towards your left side, as shown in the picture and join them using transparent tape on the plain side. Do not crumple the periscope template.
    • Take the printout of the periscope template attached below.

    • Place the two templates, page 1 towards your right side and page 2 towards your left side, as shown in the picture and join them using transparent tape on the plain side.

    • Do not crumple the periscope template.

    • Apply paper glue on the plain side of the template and paste it on the cardboard sheet.

  2. Cut along the dotted line, which runs along both pages 1 and 2. Now, the 'Periscope Box' and 'Controlling Flap' templates have been separated. Take the 'Periscope Box' template,  crease along the solid bold lines using a scale as shown in the picture.
    • Cut along the dotted line, which runs along both pages 1 and 2.

    • Now, the 'Periscope Box' and 'Controlling Flap' templates have been separated.

    • Take the 'Periscope Box' template, crease along the solid bold lines using a scale as shown in the picture.

  3. Flip the template, fold along the creased lines as shown. Make the template into a box by joining the same numbered flaps/sides together, e.g. 1 joins to 1. Paste the flaps together using glue.
    • Flip the template, fold along the creased lines as shown.

    • Make the template into a box by joining the same numbered flaps/sides together, e.g. 1 joins to 1.

    • Paste the flaps together using glue.

  4. After folding the template, it attains a box like shape. Now, cut along the dotted lines, on both sides. Now, cut along the dotted lines, on both sides.
    • After folding the template, it attains a box like shape.

    • Now, cut along the dotted lines, on both sides.

  5. Take the 'Controlling Flap' template, cut along the dotted lines and fold along solid bold lines. Now, take the flap (with letters "ABC" written on it) and fold the 'C' strip on the 'B' strip, and 'A' strip on the 'B' strip. You will, thus, get a thicker strip with three layers. Paste the layers together using  glue.
    • Take the 'Controlling Flap' template, cut along the dotted lines and fold along solid bold lines.

    • Now, take the flap (with letters "ABC" written on it) and fold the 'C' strip on the 'B' strip, and 'A' strip on the 'B' strip. You will, thus, get a thicker strip with three layers.

    • Paste the layers together using glue.

    • Repeat the same steps to make the other controlling flap.

  6. Take a 5 cm x 5 cm mirror and peel the transparent sheet off the mirror to reveal the reflecting surface. Identify the midpoint of the mirror by drawing a vertical and a horizontal line using a sketch pen, or by drawing two diagonal lines. These lines can be cleaned later, with a tissue paper.
    • Take a 5 cm x 5 cm mirror and peel the transparent sheet off the mirror to reveal the reflecting surface.

    • Identify the midpoint of the mirror by drawing a vertical and a horizontal line using a sketch pen, or by drawing two diagonal lines.

    • These lines can be cleaned later, with a tissue paper.

  7. After making the 'Controlling Flap' we will get the basic structure of the mirror holder. Fold along the solid bold line to make a 900 bend. Using paper glue, paste the 5 cm x 5 cm mirror on the centre plain square, as shown in the picture.
    • After making the 'Controlling Flap' we will get the basic structure of the mirror holder.

    • Fold along the solid bold line to make a 900 bend.

    • Using paper glue, paste the 5 cm x 5 cm mirror on the centre plain square, as shown in the picture.

    • Do not use 'synthetic rubber based' glue or 'Cyanoacrylate' glue to stick the mirror. This may damage the reflecting surface of the mirror.

    • Follow the same procedure to make the second mirror holder.

  8. Match the numbers printed on the controlling flaps and the periscope box template. Join them together with the help of insulation tape. Match the numbers printed on the controlling flaps and the periscope box template. Join them together with the help of insulation tape. Match the numbers printed on the controlling flaps and the periscope box template. Join them together with the help of insulation tape.
    • Match the numbers printed on the controlling flaps and the periscope box template. Join them together with the help of insulation tape.

  9. Tape the outer edges and the inner edges of the controlling flaps, to one of the ends of the periscope. Take a printout of protractor scale and cut along the outline of the scale as shown, using scissors. Take a printout of protractor scale and cut along the outline of the scale as shown, using scissors.
    • Tape the outer edges and the inner edges of the controlling flaps, to one of the ends of the periscope.

    • Take a printout of protractor scale and cut along the outline of the scale as shown, using scissors.

  10. Glue the protractor scale to the periscope as shown. Now, insert the controlling flaps through the rectangular slits made. Follow the same procedure to outer edges and the inner edges of the controlling flaps, to one of the ends of the periscope.
    • Glue the protractor scale to the periscope as shown.

    • Now, insert the controlling flaps through the rectangular slits made.

    • Follow the same procedure to outer edges and the inner edges of the controlling flaps, to one of the ends of the periscope.

  11. Take a 2 cm x 2 cm  foam piece and make small holes in it using scissors on both the sides, as shown. Glue the foam piece on the the body of periscope as shown in the picture. Glue the 2 cm x 2 cm soft velcro piece (loop side,fur like surface) on the foam.
    • Take a 2 cm x 2 cm foam piece and make small holes in it using scissors on both the sides, as shown.

    • Glue the foam piece on the the body of periscope as shown in the picture.

    • Glue the 2 cm x 2 cm soft velcro piece (loop side,fur like surface) on the foam.

    • Take 10 cm x 2 cm hard velcro piece (hook side, rough surface), and paste it on the controlling flap as shown in the picture.

    • Repeat these steps and stick velcro and its hook at the other end of the periscope as well.

  12. Adjust the angle of the mirror, bend the controlling flap and stick it to the velcro on top of the periscope box, so that the mirror gets fixed at the chosen angle. Now, your periscope is ready.
    • Adjust the angle of the mirror, bend the controlling flap and stick it to the velcro on top of the periscope box, so that the mirror gets fixed at the chosen angle.

    • Now, your periscope is ready.

  13. Referring to the first picture, consider the lower opening as the eyepiece and the other opening as the objective. Place the eyepiece near your eye and adjust the flap, until you see an image on the objective mirror. Try varying the angle of the objective mirror and look at the image.
    • Referring to the first picture, consider the lower opening as the eyepiece and the other opening as the objective.

    • Place the eyepiece near your eye and adjust the flap, until you see an image on the objective mirror.

    • Try varying the angle of the objective mirror and look at the image.

    • Image on the mirror is hazy and unclear - Make sure that the mirror is free from scratches.

    • Follow the lines on the periscope template for cutting and folding.

    • There is no image formed on the 'Eyepiece' mirror - 'Objective' mirror might be closer to 900.

    • Image formed on the 'Eyepiece' mirror is too small or diminished - The distance between the periscope and the object being viewed is more.

  14. Join two periscopes to make a longer one. Cut a tube into half and attach the two halves using a collar at the centre. This will allow one half of the periscope to be rotated 3600 while keeping the other half stationary.
    • Join two periscopes to make a longer one.

    • Cut a tube into half and attach the two halves using a collar at the centre. This will allow one half of the periscope to be rotated 3600 while keeping the other half stationary.

Finish Line

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Madhushree HS

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